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Citation: Bartečků E, Hořínková J, Křenek P, Damborská A, Tomandl J, Tomandlová M, Kučera J, Fialová Kučerová J and Bienertová-Vašků J (2022) Osteocalcin levels decrease during the treatment of an acute depressive episode. Front. Psychiatry 13:893012. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2022.893012
download Episode 1.118
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We found that 64 % of clients reported being tested for HIV, of whom 85 % reported receiving their test results. Likelihood of being tested was positively associated with being female, a minority, homeless, employed, having prior treatment episodes, comorbidities, injection drug use, or a history of mental illness. It was negatively associated with alcohol or marijuana as primary drug. Receipt of test results was more likely among clients on medication (methadone or buprenorphine) or whose method of drug use was smoking, inhalation, or injecting; it was less likely among older clients and those with more outpatient psychiatric visits.
Client data used in this study represented 139,516 treatment episodes collected from July 1, 2006, to December 30, 2011. We limited the analysis to outpatient programs because they represent the most common treatment option in Los Angeles County, accounting for more than 70 % of all admissions . Only clients who were admitted and discharged within the same year were included to obtain accurate estimates, due to data coding issues with clients who stayed beyond one calendar year.
Approximately 139,516 clients of addiction health services programs in Los Angeles County were included in the analysis. Nearly 28 % of clients reported more than one treatment episode, with an average of 1.8 treatment episodes for the full sample. More than half of the total final sample reported being tested for HIV during their time in treatment (64 %). Among those tested, 85 % reported that they received their test results. About 65 % of the full sample was male, with Blacks and Latinos accounting for 60 %. Nearly 24 % self-reported as being homeless and the majority of clients were self-referred to treatment (39 %). Most of the clients in the sample were not receiving pharmacotherapy (81 %). Methamphetamine (25 %), followed by alcohol (22 %), was the primary drug of choice in the study sample. Approximately 16 % of clients injected drugs. HCV and sexually transmitted disease (STD) diagnosis in the sample was 6 % and 4 %, respectively, and 24 % reported a history of mental illness.
The subsample that reported HIV testing also reported more days on a waiting list, more treatment episodes, and more outpatient medical and psychiatric visits. This subsample also reported a higher proportion of clients in residential treatment, a lower proportion of outpatient and methadone treatment, and less use of methadone and other medications (see Table 1).
Clients who received HIV test results also reported more days on a waiting list, more treatment episodes, more outpatient medical and psychiatric visits, an increased likelihood of being in residential treatment, and a lower likelihood of receiving outpatient and methadone treatment. This sample also reported less use of methadone and other medications (see Table 1).
A statistically significant decrease in overall relapse rate was observed during the period of amisulpride therapy compared with months previous to the introduction of amisulpride. The relative risk of relapse in the absence of amisulpride therapy was 3.1 (χ2 = 4.2, P
Bipolar disorder is a very common mood disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of depression, mania, and/or mixed symptom states. These episodes cause unusual and extreme shifts in mood, energy, and behaviour that interfere significantly with normal, healthy functioning and strongly affects the quality of life and social functioning. Type I bipolar disorder is the most severe and usually chronic form of this disorder. The essential treatment of this affection in adults involves drugs potentially effective in controlling mania, in preventing recurrences of manic and depressive episodes and, after completing an acute phase of treatment, in maintaining a stable remission. Unfortunately longitudinal studies have proven that a large number of patients keep presenting the former symptoms, even though treated with polytherapy. Nowadays atypical antipsychotics are increasingly used as mood stabilizers during acute depressive and manic phases and are preferably used instead of the traditional ones for causing less side-effects . Amisulpride is a highly tolerable atypical antipsychotic that has been reported to be effective in treatment of schizophrenia , major depressive disorder  and, more recently, acute mania . At low doses, it increases dopaminergic transmission by preferentially blocking D2 and D3 presynaptic receptors; the latter property has been used in clinical trials as an additional therapy to lithium in depressed bipolar patients . At the moment, however, no experimental study has assessed the effectiveness of this compound in mid-term maintenance therapy. The purpose of this study was to assess the long-term effectiveness of amisulpride in combination with standard treatments in patients with bipolar I disorder who have shown inadequate responses to ongoing standard therapies.
Improvements in mean CGI-BP score were observed comparing the mean score 3 months before (4.45 0.93 [Mean Standard Deviation]), at baseline (5.00 1.118) and 3 months after amisulpride introduction (3.82 1.17, F = 3.5 (DF 2,30,32), P
Some of our study data, and in particular the overcoming of depressive episodes after decreasing the amisulpride dosage, suggest that this compound may be effective as an antidepressant at low doses and as an antimanic at high doses, properties that could be used in long-term treatment of the bipolar disorder.