HTML5 defines subtitles as a "transcription or translation of the dialogue when sound is available but not understood" by the viewer (for example, dialogue in a foreign language) and captions as a "transcription or translation of the dialogue, sound effects, relevant musical cues, and other relevant audio information when sound is unavailable or not clearly audible" (for example, when audio is muted or the viewer is deaf or hard of hearing).
In the United States, the National Captioning Institute noted that English as a foreign or second language (ESL) learners were the largest group buying decoders in the late 1980s and early 1990s before built-in decoders became a standard feature of US television sets. This suggested that the largest audience of closed captioning was people whose native language was not English. In the United Kingdom, of 7.5 million people using TV subtitles (closed captioning), 6 million have no hearing impairment.
Captioning is modulated and stored differently in PAL and SECAM 625 line 25 frame countries, where teletext is used rather than in EIA-608, but the methods of preparation and the line 21 field used are similar. For home Betamax and VHS videotapes, a shift down of this line 21 field must be done due to the greater number of VBI lines used in 625 line PAL countries, though only a small minority of European PAL VHS machines support this (or any) format for closed caption recording. Like all teletext fields, teletext captions can't be stored by a standard 625 line VHS recorder (due to the lack of field shifting support); they are available on all professional S-VHS recordings due to all fields being recorded. Recorded Teletext caption fields also suffer from a higher number of caption errors due to increased number of bits and a low SNR, especially on low-bandwidth VHS. This is why Teletext captions used to be stored separately on floppy disk to the analogue master tape. DVDs have their own system for subtitles and captions, which are digitally inserted in the data stream and decoded on playback into video.
As CC1 and CC2 share bandwidth, if there is a lot of data in CC1, there will be little room for CC2 data and is generally only used for the primary audio captions. Similarly, CC3 and CC4 share the second even field of line 21. Since some early caption decoders supported only single field decoding of CC1 and CC2, captions for SAP in a second language were often placed in CC2. This led to bandwidth problems, and the U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) recommendation is that bilingual programming should have the second caption language in CC3. Many Spanish television networks such as Univision and Telemundo, for example, provides English subtitles for many of its Spanish programs in CC3. Canadian broadcasters use CC3 for French translated SAPs, which is also a similar practice in South Korea and Japan.
Ceefax and Teletext can have a larger number of captions for other languages due to the use of multiple VBI lines. However, only European countries used a second subtitle page for second language audio tracks where either the NICAM dual mono or Zweikanalton were used.
In New Zealand, captions use an EBU Ceefax-based teletext system on DVB broadcasts via satellite and cable television with the exception of MediaWorks New Zealand channels who completely switched to DVB RLE subtitles in 2012 on both Freeview satellite and UHF broadcasts, this decision was made based on the TVNZ practice of using this format on only DVB UHF broadcasts (aka Freeview HD). This made composite video connected TVs incapable of decoding the captions on their own. Also, these pre-rendered subtitles use classic caption style opaque backgrounds with an overly large font size and obscure the picture more than the more modern, partially transparent backgrounds.
In addition to Line 21 closed captions, video DVDs may also carry subtitles, which generally rendered from the EIA-608 captions as a bitmap overlay that can be turned on and off via a set top DVD player or DVD player software, just like the textual captions. This type of captioning is usually carried in a subtitle track labeled either "English for the hearing impaired" or, more recently, "SDH" (subtitled for the deaf and Hard of hearing). Many popular Hollywood DVD-Videos can carry both subtitles and closed captions (e.g. Stepmom DVD by Columbia Pictures). On some DVDs, the Line 21 captions may contain the same text as the subtitles; on others, only the Line 21 captions include the additional non-speech information (even sometimes song lyrics) needed for deaf and hard-of-hearing viewers. European Region 2 DVDs do not carry Line 21 captions, and instead list the subtitle languages available-English is often listed twice, one as the representation of the dialogue alone, and a second subtitle set which carries additional information for the deaf and hard-of-hearing audience. (Many deaf/HOH subtitle files on DVDs are reworkings of original teletext subtitle files.)
Blu-ray media cannot carry any VBI data such as Line 21 closed captioning due to the design of DVI-based High-Definition Multimedia Interface (HDMI) specifications that was only extended for synchronized digital audio replacing older analog standards, such as VGA, S-Video, component video, and SCART. Both Blu-ray and DVD can use either PNG bitmap subtitles or 'advanced subtitles' to carry SDH type subtitling, the latter being an XML-based textual format which includes font, styling and positioning information as well as a unicode representation of the text. Advanced subtitling can also include additional media accessibility features such as "descriptive audio".
The infrequent appearance of closed captioning in video games became a problem in the 1990s as games began to commonly feature voice tracks, which in some cases contained information which the player needed in order to know how to progress in the game. Closed captioning of video games is becoming more common. One of the first video game companies to feature closed captioning was Bethesda Softworks in their 1990 release of Hockey League Simulator and The Terminator 2029. Infocom also offered Zork Grand Inquisitor in 1997. Many games since then have at least offered subtitles for spoken dialog during cutscenes, and many include significant in-game dialog and sound effects in the captions as well; for example, with subtitles turned on in the Metal Gear Solid series of stealth games, not only are subtitles available during cut scenes, but any dialog spoken during real-time gameplay will be captioned as well, allowing players who can't hear the dialog to know what enemy guards are saying and when the main character has been detected. Also, in many of developer Valve's video games (such as Half-Life 2 or Left 4 Dead), when closed captions are activated, dialog and nearly all sound effects either made by the player or from other sources (e.g. gunfire, explosions) will be captioned.
Video games don't offer Line 21 captioning, decoded and displayed by the television itself but rather a built-in subtitle display, more akin to that of a DVD. The game systems themselves have no role in the captioning either; each game must have its subtitle display programmed individually.
We provide subtitles for movies and videos, whether they are for Blu-ray, DVD, Internet, or displays. SDH - Subtitles for Deaf & Hard of Hearing with closed captioning format to include sound effects. This option affords the flexibility of subtitles with the advantage of closed captioning, and gives more options for the viewer to change the font size, color, and display features that are often not available with closed captions. 041b061a72